Definition of payday loan


What is a payday loan?

A payday loan is a type of short-term loan where a lender gives high interest credit based on your income. Its principal is usually part of your next paycheck. Payday loans charge high interest rates for immediate short-term credit. They are also called cash advances or check advances.

Key points to remember

  • Payday loans are short term, very high interest rate loans available to consumers.
  • Payday loans are generally based on the amount you earn and you are usually required to provide a paycheck stub when you request it.
  • A number of laws have been put in place over the years to regulate the high fees and interest rates of payday loans.

Understanding Payday Loans

Payday loans charge borrowers high interest rates and don’t require any collateral, making it a type of unsecured personal loan. These loans can be considered predatory loans because they have extremely high interest rates, disregard the borrower’s repayment capacity, and have hidden provisions that charge borrowers additional fees. As a result, they can create a debt trap for consumers. If you are considering a payday loan, you may want to consider safer personal loan alternatives first.

Are payday loans fixed or variable?

Payday loans are generally meant to be repaid in one lump sum payment when you receive your paycheck. For this reason, the rate of interest on these loans is fixed. In fact, many payday lenders don’t even express their fees as an interest rate, but instead charge a flat fee that can range from $ 10 to $ 30 for every $ 100 borrowed.

Is a payday loan secured or unsecured?

Most payday loans are unsecured. This means that you don’t have to give the lender any collateral or borrow against anything of value like you do in a pawnshop.

Instead, the lender will normally ask you for permission to withdraw money electronically from your bank, credit union, or prepaid card account. Alternatively, the lender may ask you to write a check for the repayment amount, which they will cash when the loan matures. Under federal law, lenders cannot make a payday loan conditional on obtaining consumer authorization for “pre-authorized” (recurring) electronic funds transfers.

How long do payday loans stay in the system?

Traditional loan records can be kept for six to 10 years by credit bureaus, the companies that calculate credit scores, which in turn can affect your ability to borrow money in the future. Payday lenders generally do not report to the credit bureaus, even with late repayments. But the payday loan can be deposited once it has passed to collectors after the lender has sold the debts.

If you pay off your payday loan on time, your credit score should not be affected. On the other hand, if you default on your loan and your debt goes to a collection agency, you will see a drop in your score.

Can Payday Loan Debt Be Forgiven?

In practice, it is very rare for a personal loan debt to be canceled. This is because the payday lenders make large sums from the interest they charge on these loans.

This means that you should try to pay off the payday loans as soon as possible. If you can’t pay off a payday loan, the account may be sent to a collection agency, who will sue you for the money and interest you owe. This is not only unpleasant but it can also add money to your overall debt and it will hurt your credit.

Get a payday loan

Payday loan providers are usually small credit merchants with physical stores that allow on-site credit applications and approval. Some payday loan services may also be available from online lenders.

To complete a payday loan application, you are normally required to provide pay stubs from your employer that show your current income level. Payday lenders often base their loan principal on a percentage of the borrower’s expected short-term income. Many also use a borrower’s salary as collateral. Lenders usually don’t do a full credit check and don’t consider your ability to repay the loan.

Can you get a personal loan without a bank account?

Yes. Having a bank account is not universally required to borrow money, but lenders who do not need one usually charge high interest rates. This includes many payday lenders. Payday lenders can apply for a bank account, but sometimes a prepaid card account can be sufficient to qualify.

Since these loans are so expensive and can be difficult to repay, it is almost always best to avoid them. If you cannot pay off the loan quickly, the fees can add up, leading to a debt trap that is difficult to get out of. For this reason, you should only take out a payday loan if you are absolutely sure that you can repay it.

In the United States, in 2021, 16 states and the District of Columbia banned payday loans.

Payday loan interest rates

Payday lenders charge very high interest rates: up to 780% Annual Percentage (APR), with an average loan standing at almost 400%. Most states have usury laws that limit interest charges from 5% to 30%. However, payday lenders enjoy exemptions that allow their high interest.

As these loans qualify for many shortcomings in state loans, borrowers should be wary. Regulations on these loans are governed by individual states, with 16 states: Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South Dakota , Vermont, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia prohibiting payday loans of any kind.

In California, for example, a payday lender can charge 460% APR over 14 days for a $ 100 loan. The finance charges on these loans are also an important factor to consider, as the average charges are $ 15 per $ 100 of loan.

Although federal Truth About Lending Law requires payday lenders to disclose finance charges, many people overlook the costs. Most loans are for 30 days or less and help borrowers meet their short-term debts. The loan amounts on these loans are generally $ 100 to $ 1,000, with $ 500 being common. Loans can usually be renewed for additional finance charges, and many borrowers, up to 80% of them, end up becoming loyal customers.

A number of lawsuits have been filed against payday lenders as loan laws have been enacted since the 2008 financial crisis to create a more transparent and fairer loan market for consumers. If you are considering taking out a payday loan, a personal loan calculator can be an essential tool in determining the type of interest rate you can afford.

Efforts to regulate payday loans

Efforts to regulate payday lenders were proposed in 2016 under the Obama administration and implemented in 2017, when the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB), headed by then-director Richard Cordray, passed guidelines. rules to protect consumers from what Cordray called “debt traps.”

The rules included a mandatory underwriting provision requiring lenders to assess a borrower’s ability to repay a loan while meeting the expenses of daily living before the loan is granted. The rules also required lenders to provide written notice before attempting to collect a borrower’s bank account, and further required that after two failed attempts to debit an account, the lender could not try again without the authorization of the borrower. These rules were first proposed in 2016 and were expected to come into force in 2019.

In February 2019, the CFPB, then under the Trump administration and director Kathleen L. Kraninger, released proposed rules to revoke the mandatory subscription provision and delay implementation of the 2017 rules. In June 2019, the CFPB issued a final rule delaying the August 2019 compliance date, and on July 7, 2020, it issued a final rule repealing the mandatory underwriting provision but leaving the limitation on repeated attempts by lenders in place. payday to collect from a borrower’s bank account.

Under the Biden administration, it is likely that the new CFPB leadership will once again adopt stricter rules for payday lending.

The bottom line

Payday loans are designed to cover short term expenses and can be taken out without collateral or even bank account. The catch is that these loans charge very high fees and interest rates.

Borrowers should beware of these loans. They can be considered predatory loans because they have extremely high interest rates, disregard the borrower’s repayment capacity, and have hidden provisions that charge borrowers additional fees. As a result, they can create a debt trap for consumers. If you are considering a payday loan, you might want to take a look at safer personal loan alternatives first.


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